June 01, 2020

NeuroAIDS and Comorbidity of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

The clinical comorbidity of psychiatric conditions associated with HIV is a major public health concern. Mental illnesses may have a direct association with the neuropathology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); and mental illness is a risk factor for the exposure of HIV, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. HIV has been shown to directly affect the central and peripheral nervous system thus leading to neurocognitive disorders collectively known as NeuroAIDS. This has become increasingly important in the field due to the higher prevalence of psychiatric conditions that have been observed in this population. This article reviews the neurocognitive disorders and their comorbidity with neuropsychiatric disease in terms of premorbid mental illnesses, disorders directly caused by HIV infection, and mental conditions related to the medications used in treatment of HIV+ individuals. 

October 24, 2017

This book on NeuroAIDS, a collection of chapters written by experts and specialists from around the world, provides a global perspective on HIV and NeuroAIDS in the field, clinic, and laboratory. The chapters address the comorbidity of HIV and other infectious agents, including Zika virus, Ebola, Chagas disease, TB and HCV. Also discussed are key topics, such as: Molecular socioepidemiology, Global HIV and NeuroAIDS, Neuropathology, cART and blood-brain barrier penetration, HIV replicative oscillations, HIV and SIV evolution, Psychiatric comorbidities, Neurosyphilis , and the examination of current and innovative models of translational research to translational effectiveness

July 19, 2011

We analyzed gene expression in neurons from 16 cases divided into four groups, ie, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia (HAD)/HIV encephalitis (HAD/HIVE), HAD alone, HIVE alone, and HIV positive alone. We produced the neurons using laser capture microdissection from cryopreserved basal ganglia (specifically globus pallidus).

March 22, 2011

The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) gp160 (gp120-gp41 complex) trimer envelope (ENV) protein is a potential vaccine candidate for HIV/AIDS. HIV-1 vaccine development has been problematic and charge polarity as well as sequence variation across clades may relate to the difficulties. 

May 29, 2006

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia, has few clinical similarities to HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). However, genes were identified related among these dementias. Discovering correlations between gene function, expression, and structure in the human genome continues to aid in understanding the similarities between pathogenesis of these two dementing disorders

May 01, 2006

As a model for Neuropsychiatric dysfunction in NeuroAIDS due to HIV-1 infection and drug abuse, we analyzed gene expression in human neurons treated with cocaine and HIV-1 proteins tat and envelope (env). One-way ANOVA showed statistically significant genes among the treatment groups (p ≤ 0.0005). The identified genes were then subjected to a "stepwise" analysis using a repeated measures ANOVA to discover genes with parallel response group profiles across the treatment conditions.

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Get a mentor, would ya.

I have had the honor of working with a great scientist and to him, I can't be any more grateful. He has taught and allowed me to work on his research which later became my own. He has given me the passion for research and the power of knowledge. 


If you don't have a mentor, go find one.


I always get asked how did I learn to do this. and I always say the same doing it.

But I was given the opportunity to do by my mentor: Dr. Paul Shapshak


Dr. Shapshak you rock!




-Miami, Florida